Updated: Jul 9, 2021
The welding method for processing metals was invented a long time ago. It would seem that the availability of laser technologies will replace the above-mentioned method; nevertheless, it is popular today. Welding and related equipment undergo a certain number of transformations and adaptations to the requirements of modern technological features. Due to the development of each industry, an increasing number of international standards are being created that regulate not only the process of creating equipment but also the system of its application at each of the types of industries and organizations. If your field of activity involves the use of welding processes, we strongly recommend that you pay attention to the following international standards.
Resistance welding - Spot welding of aluminum and aluminum alloys - Weldability, welding, and testing (ISO 18595:2021)
Metal processing is a complex action, which implies several stages, one of which is welding. For welding processes applied to materials such as aluminum, the narrow-profile international standard EN ISO 18595: 2021 has been created.
This document specifies requirements for resistance spot welding in the fabrication of assemblies of aluminum sheet, extrusions (both work- and age-hardening alloys), and/or cast material comprising two or three thicknesses of metal, where the maximum single (sheet) thickness of components to be
welded is within the range of 0,6 mm to 6 mm.
This document is applicable to the welding of sheets or plates of dissimilar thickness where the thickness ratio is less than or equal to 3:1. It applies to welding three thicknesses where the total thickness is less than or equal to 9 mm. Welding with the following types of machines is within the scope of this document:
— pedestal welding machines;
— gun welders;
— automatic welding equipment where the components are fed by robots or automatic feeding
— robotic welders.
Information on appropriate welding equipment is given in Annex A and on spot welding conditions in Annex B.
The latter are for guidance only and can require modification depending on service conditions of the fabrication, type of welding equipment, characteristics of the secondary circuit, electrode material, and geometry.
The welding of coated material, e.g. zinc-coated or anodized material, is outside the scope of this document.
A feature of this document, despite the detailed characteristics, is the presence of certain exceptions to the type of metal that can be processed. If your field of activity involves the use of this technology as well as the specified metals, we recommend that you think about purchasing this document to improve the quality of the final product.
Resistance welding - Vocabulary - Part 1: Spot, projection and seam welding (ISO 17677-1:2021)
Production processes and their regulation always imply the presence of a huge amount of terminology that must be explained not only in the correct way but also applied in the correct way specifically in the context of your field of activity. To simplify the regulation of these issues, such international standards as EN ISO 17677-1: 2021 are being created, which are a kind of dictionary that facilitates the application and implementation of regulatory legal acts.
CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN member.
This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.
This international standard is adapted to the European Union market. If your field of activity extends to a more global scale, you can follow the link to our website and select clarifying standards specifically for your organization.
Electron and laser-beam welded joints - Requirements and recommendations on quality levels for imperfections - Part 2: Aluminium, magnesium and their alloys and pure copper (ISO 13919-2:2021)
Sometimes for a certain production, not the entire international standard is sufficient, but a separate part of it. Sometimes a whole part of the document can characterize exactly the technology on which your production is based. That is why if you are processing metals using laser technology, we recommend that you pay attention to the document EN ISO 13919-2: 2021.
This document gives guidance on levels of imperfections in electron and laser beam welded joints in aluminum, magnesium and their alloys, and pure copper. Three levels are given in such a way as to permit application for a wide range of welded fabrications. The levels refer to production quality and not to the fitness-for-purpose of the product manufactured.
This document applies to electron and laser beam welding of:
— aluminum and its alloys;
— magnesium and its alloys;
— pure copper (e.g. Cu-ETP1 CW003A, Cu-ETP CW004A, Cu-FRHC CW005A, Cu-FRTP CW006A, Cu-OF1
CW007A, Cu-OF CW008A, Cu-OFE CW009A, Cu-PHC CW020A, Cu-HCP CW021A, Cu-PHCE CW022A,
Cu-DLP CW023A, Cu-DHP CW024A);
— all types of welds welded with or without additional filler wire;
— materials equal to or above 0,5 mm thickness for electron and laser beam welding.
When significant deviations from the joint geometries and dimensions stated in this document are present in the welded product, it is necessary to evaluate to what extent the provisions of this document can apply. For circular welds, a lower quality level can be specified for the fade-out zone. Metallurgical aspects, e.g. grain size, hardness, hydrogen embrittlement (pure copper) are not covered
by this document.
This document is directly applicable to the visual examination of welds and does not include details of recommended methods of detection or sizing by other non-destructive means. There are difficulties in using these limits to establish appropriate criteria applicable to non-destructive testing methods, such as ultrasonic, radiographic, and penetrant testing, and they can need to be supplemented by requirements for inspection, examination, and testing.
It should be noted that the process of studying the technical characteristics of documents as well as the technological base of your production is one of the first in choosing an international standard. This compliance, as well as its verification, will allow you to choose exactly the document that will expand the horizon of the organization's interaction and bring it to a completely new qualitative and financial level.
Destructive tests on welds in metallic materials - Hardness testing of narrow joints welded by laser and electron beam (Vickers and Knoop hardness tests) (ISO 22826:2005)
Test methods and their regulation are one of the first steps in building any quality system. Welding processes imply compliance with safety issues and, as a result, great attention is paid to each stage. To regulate the stages of testing equipment used with the use of laser technology, such an international standard as EN ISO 22826: 2021 was created.
ISO 22826:2005 specifies the requirements for hardness testing of transverse sections of narrow laser and electron beam welded joints in metallic materials. It covers Vickers and Knoop hardness tests in accordance with ISO 6507-1 and ISO 4545, respectively, with test forces of 0,098 N to just under 98 N (HV 0,01 to just under HV 10) for the Vickers hardness test and test forces up to and including 9,8 N (just under HK 1) for the Knoop hardness test.
It is applicable to welds made with or without filler wire. It may not be applicable to the testing of wider hybrid laser/arc welds.
Since the number of laser technologies is increasing every day, this international standard is not universal. That is why we recommend paying attention to each technological parameter described in the informational abstract to this document. In case you have any further questions, you can always follow the link to the website and contact our team of specialists.
Additive manufacturing - Material extrusion-based additive manufacturing of plastic materials - Part 1: Feedstock materials (ISO/ASTM 52903-1:2020)
Due to the increasing demand for green technologies, the use of plastic materials is increasingly regulated both locally and globally. The production of plastic materials is at some risk of extinction if regulations are not followed. In order to keep abreast of the latest market requirements and stay in the leading positions, you should pay attention to EN ISO / ASTM 52903-1: 2021.
This document describes a method for defining requirements for plastic materials used in extrusion-based additive manufacturing (AM) processes. Materials include unfilled, filled, and reinforced plastic materials suitable for processing into parts. These materials can also contain special additives (e.g. flame retardants, stabilizers, etc.). Processes include all material extrusion-based AM processes. This document is intended for use by manufacturers of materials, feedstocks, plastic parts or any combination of the three using material extrusion-based AM.
In some cases, material manufacturers can also be feedstock manufacturers. In other cases, a material manufacturer can supply materials (example: pellets) to a feedstock manufacturer (example: converter of pellets into filaments).
This document does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
This document is not specialized and provides only descriptive methods and recommendations. If you are interested in purchasing international standards specifically regulating the processing of plastic products, pay attention to the international standards created specifically for this industry, and not being an addition to the production structure documents.
Welding processes and a variety of related equipment
Due to the fact that there is a wide variation in the various equipment used in this category, it becomes necessary to create a document for each of them. The availability of international standards for welding processes and related technologies and tools will allow not only building a safe system in terms of physical risks but also significantly reducing the negative financial consequences of ignoring international market requirements. If we consider adherence to international standards in terms of positive opportunities, then it is necessary to emphasize that operating in the international market will become much easier by improving the quality of your products and services. If you do not know which particular international standard may be useful to you, you can consult with a team of specialists in the field of selection of international standards, which will help you make the right choice and start a new stage in the development of your company.